M. vaccae is a bacteria known for its ability to release serotonin. In this article, we discuss the mechanisms by which the bacteria release serotonin. In addition, we will discuss the stress resilience of the bacteria. This article was written for those who are interested in this topic. In this article, we will discuss the mechanisms by which M. vaccae releases serotonin.
Mycobacterium vaccae releases serotonin
Mycobacterium vaccae is a naturally occurring bacteria that triggers neurons in the brain to release serotonin. These findings were published in the Neuroscience journal. The study was led by the University of Bristol and the University College London and aims to understand why some people have a weakened immune system and are prone to mood disorders. It is also an important step toward developing treatments for depression.
The researchers found that repeated immunization of mice with M. vaccae prevented the onset of depression in mice. This prevents inappropriate inflammation of the mycobacterium vaccae supplement. These findings indicate that the bacteria may be useful in combating depression and anxiety disorders. For more information, see Supplementary File S1.
These results are consistent with previous research on the effects of Mycobacterium vaccination on stress resilience. The vaccination improved microbiome-gut-brain axis signaling and promoted stress resilience in a “two-hit” stressor model. In addition, the vaccination improved the microbiome-gut-brain axis’s alpha diversity, which is measured in Shannon’s diversity index.
Stress resilience effect of M. vaccae
Mycobacterium vaccae has a unique anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effect. It has been shown to promote stress resilience in a “two-hit” model of chronic stress. The bacterium alters the microbiome-gut-brain axis signaling, enhancing stress resilience in mice. In mice exposed to M. vaccae or NLD, behavioral changes were observed during the stress response. These changes included more proactive coping displays and decreased stereotypical submission during social interaction.
The immune response to stress is modulated by the amygdala, a region of the brain that controls the emotional response to fear. M. vaccae enhances the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and transforming growth factor b, and peripheral immunization with the bacterium promotes an anti-inflammatory milieu in the CNS. The immune response to stress is an important component of health and disease.
M. vaccae treatment reversed the effects of age-related de ramification. However, the effects of the bacterium were limited to aged rats without a challenge to the immune system. The bacterium rescued immune activation and morphological alterations, which were previously associated with age. These findings suggest that M. vaccae may promote greater resilience to stress in aging rats.
Mechanisms by which it releases serotonin
The bacterial pathogen M. vaccae is responsible for raising serotonin levels in the brain, and its effect on the immune system may explain its ability to trigger the release of the neurotransmitter. The bacteria can also induce immunoregulation, which inhibits the inappropriate release of inflammatory cytokines.
The bacteria induce the production of regulatory T cells, which release anti-inflammatory cytokines, to prevent excessive inflammation caused by effector T cells. There are three types of effector T cells, and M. vaccae stimulates the production of both types of cells.
Several studies have emphasized the connection between healthy bacteria and mental health. For instance, studies have suggested that rural children may have lower rates of mental illness and a more resilient immune system, compared to children living in urban centers. In one study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Lowry found that injecting M. vaccae in mice prior to stressful events prevented the development of PTSD-like symptoms. Furthermore, the injections also fended off stress-induced colitis, and the animals were less anxious when under stress.
Another study used a single-blinded and randomized crossover study method to investigate the physiological response of human participants to bacterial-derived metabolites in soil. The participants were given five minutes to perform soil-mixing activities, during which blood samples were drawn and electroencephalograms were recorded. The serum metabolomes, as well as soil-emitted volatile organic compounds, were identified.